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Seeking Safety


This section has two parts: 

The Seeking Safety model (description and implementation)

(1) Najavits LM. (2011). Seeking Safety: Coping Skills. National Council Magazine, 2.

(2) Najavits, LM (2009). Seeking Safety: An implementation guide. In A. Rubin & DW Springer (Eds). The Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

(3) Najavits, LM, Schmitz, M, Johnson, KM, Smith, C, North, T, Hamilton, N, Walser, R, Reeder, K Norman, S, Wilkins, K. (2009). Seeking Safety therapy for men: Clinical and research experiences. In Men and Addictions. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY.

(4) Najavits LM (2007).  Seeking Safety: An evidence-based model for substance abuse and trauma/PTSD.  In: KA Witkiewitz & GA Marlatt (Eds.), Therapists' Guide to Evidence-Based Relapse Prevention: Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional, pages 141-167.  San Diego: Elsevier Press.

(5) Najavits LM (2006). Seeking Safety.  In V Follette & JL Ruzek (Eds.), Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma (2nd ed.), pages 228-257. New York: Guilford. 

(6) Najavits LM (2004). Implementing Seeking Safety therapy for PTSD and substance abuse: Clinical guidelinesAlcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 2004; 22:43-62.  Also, an earlier version of this article is online at Behavioral Health Recovery Management Project (   

(7) Najavits LM (2003). Seeking Safety: A new psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder.  In: Trauma and Substance Abuse: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment of Comorbid Disorders (P. Ouimette & P. Brown, Eds.), pages 147-170. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.   

(8) Najavits LM (2000). Training clinicians to conduct the Seeking Safety treatment for PTSD and substance abuse. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 18:83-98.

(9) Najavits LM.  Seeking Safety therapy for trauma and substance abuseCorrections Today, 2002; 64: 136-140. 

(10) Najavits LM (2002).  Suggested protocol for selecting and training clinicians in Seeking Safety. Unpublished manuscript, McLean Hospital, Belmont MA.

(11) Najavits LM. (1999). Seeking Safety: A new cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD and substance abuse. National Center for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Clinical Quarterly; 8(40):42-45.

Empirical Studies of Seeking Safety

For articles on Seeking Safety outcomes, click here.

A Woman's Addiction Workbook

(1) Najavits, LM, Rosier, M, Nolan, AL, Freeman, MC (2007). A new gender-based model for women�s recovery from substance abuse: Results of a pilot outcome study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33, 5-11.


(1) Najavits. LM, Weiss, RD, Liese, BS (1996). Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for women with PTSD and substance use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 13: 224-231.

(2) Najavits LM, Weiss RD, Shaw SR (1997). The link between substance abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in women: A research review. American Journal on Addictions. 6: 273-283.

(3) Najavits LM Gastfriend DR, Barber JP, Reif S, Muenz L, Blaine J, Frank A, Crits-Christoph P, Thase M, Weiss RD (1998). Cocaine dependence with and without PTSD among subjects in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. American Journal of Psychiatry. 155: 214-219.

(4) Najavits LM, Weiss RD, Reif S, Gastfriend DR, Siqueland L, Barber JP, Butler S, Thase M, Blaine J, (1998) The Addiction Severity Index as a screen for trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 59: 56-62.

(5) Ouimette PC, Brown PJ, Najavits LM (1998).  Course and treatment of patients with both substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 23:785-795. 

(6) Weiss RD, Najavits LM, Greenfield SF, Soto JA, Shaw SR, Wyner D (1998). Validity of substance use self-reports in dually diagnosed outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155:127-128.

(7) Najavits LM. (1998). Trauma and substance abuse. Many Voices (newsletter for trauma survivors). 4.

(8) Najavits LM, Weiss RD, Shaw SR (1999) A clinical profile of women with PTSD and substance dependence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13:98-104.

(9) Najavits LM (2002).  Clinicians' views on treating posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorderJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 22:79-85.

(10) Battle CL, Zlotnick C, Najavits, LM, Gutierrez M, Winsor C. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder among incarcerated women. In Ouimette P, Brown PJ (Eds.), Trauma and substance abuse: Causes, consequences, and treatment of comorbid disorders, pages 209-226. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. Please request from the first author, Dr. Battle, at:

(11) Najavits LM, Runkel R, Neuner C, Frank AF, Thase ME, Crits-Christoph P, Blaine J (2003). Rates and symptoms of PTSD among cocaine-dependent patientsJournal of Studies on Alcohol, 64:601-606. 

(12) Najavits LM, Sonn J, Walsh M, Weiss RD (2004). Domestic violence in women with PTSD and substance abuse. Addictive Behavior, 29:707-715.

(13) Najavits LM, Gotthardt S, Weiss RD, Epstein M. (2004). Cognitive distortions in the dual diagnosis of PTSD and substance use disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28:159-172.

(14) Najavits LM, Sullivan TP, Schmitz M, Weiss RD, Lee CSN (2004).  Treatment utilization of women with PTSD and substance dependence.  American Journal on Addictions, 13:215-224.

(15) Najavits LM (2004).  Assessment of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorder: A practical guide. In: Wilson JP, Keane T (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (2nd ed.), pages 466-491. New York: Guilford Press. 

(16) Najavits LM (2004).  Treatment for the dual diagnosis of posttraumatic stress and substance use disordersDirections in Addiction Treatment and Prevention. The Hatherleigh Press, 8:1-11.

(17) Gershuny, BS, Najavits LM, Wood PK, Heppner, M (2004). The relation between trauma and psychopathology:  Mediating roles of dissociation and fears about death and control. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 5:101-117 

(18) Harrison A, Jessup MA, Covington SS, Najavits LM (2004). Weaving the vision: Research-to-practice strategies for women�s recovery. Counselor, 5:57-64.

(19) Najavits LM (2004). Book review. Remembering Trauma (by Richard J. McNally). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192:331. 

(20) Najavits LM. (2004). Numbing the pain: The link between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse. Counselor; 5(5):12-18.

(21) Najavits LM, Kanukollu, S (2005). It can be learned, but can it be taught? Results from a state-wide training initiative on PTSD and substance abuse. Journal of Dual Diagnosis,1:41-51.

(22) Najavits LM (2005). Theoretical perspective on PTSD and substance use disorder. Australian Psychologist, 40:118-126.

(23) Najavits LM (2006). Present- versus past-focused therapy for PTSD / substance abuse: A study of clinician preferences. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention..


(24) Harned MS, Najavits LM, Weiss, RD (2006). Self-harm and suicidal behavior in women with comorbid PTSD and substance dependence. American Journal on Addictions, 15, 1-5.


(25) Najavits LM (2006). Managing trauma reactions in intensive addiction treatment environments. Journal of Chemical Dependency Treatment, 8, 153-162.

(26) Najavits LM (2007). Psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. In P. E. Nathan & J. Gorman, A Guide to Treatments that Work (3rd ed.). Oxford Press: New York. This article has also been translated into Dutch.

(27) Najavits LM, Harned MS, Gallop RJ, Butler SF, Barber JP, Thase ME, Crits-Christoph P (2007). Six-month treatment outcomes of cocaine-dependent patients with and without PTSD in a multisite national trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 353-361.


(28) Calhoun P, Najavits LM, Kosten T, Kivlahan D (2007). Substance use in OIE/OEF veterans: Substance Use Disorder (SUD) QUERI Initiatives. Health Services Research & Development Forum (May 2007), pg. 6. Note: scroll to page 6 to view the article.


(29) Najavits LM, Lester KM (2008). Gender differences in cocaine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 97, 190-194.


(30) Najavits, L.M., Ryngala, D., Back, S.E., Bolton, E., Mueser, K.T., & Brady, K.T. (2008). Treatment for PTSD and comorbid disorders: A review of the literature.
In E.B. Foa, T. M. Keane, M. J. Friedman & J. Cohen (Eds.), Effective Treatments For PTSD:  Practice Guidelines from the International Society For Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.


(31) Najavits LM (2009). Interview with Lisa M. Najavits, Ph.D. Exartisis (Greek scientific journal, Addiction).  Interview conducted by Konstantina Yfanti.

(32) Najavits LM, Norman SB, Kivlahan D, Kosten TR (2010). Improving PTSD/substance abuse treatment in the VA: a survey of providers. American Journal on Addictions,19(3):257-63.


(33) Najavits LM, Meyer T, Johnson KM, Korn D. (2010). Pathological gambling and posttraumatic stress disorder: A study of the co-morbidity versus each alone. Journal of Gambling Studies.

(34) Najavits, LM (2010). Treatment utilization of pathological gamblers with and without PTSD. Journal of Gambling Studies.
(35) Najavits, LM (2010). Treatments for PTSD and pathological gambling: What do patients want? Journal of Gambling Studies.
(36) Peller, A.J., Najavits, LM, Nelson, S., LaBrie, R.A., Shaffer, HJ. (2010). PTSD among a treatment sample of repeat DUI offenders. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 468-473.


(37) Brady, L.C., Najavits, L.M., Touissant, D., Bonavota, D, Veysey, B. (2010). Does criminal involvement matter? A study of women with co-occurring disorders in a multisite national trial. Mental Health and Substance Use: Dual Diagnosis, 3, 193-202.


(38) Najavits LM, Kivlahan D, Kosten T. (2011). A national survey of clinicians' views of evidence-based therapies for PTSD and substance abuse. Addiction Research and Theory, 19, 138-147.


(39) Najavits, L.M. and Walsh, M. (2012). Dissociation, PTSD, and substance abuse: An empirical study, Journal of Trauma and Dissociation.13:1, 115-126.


(40) Miller, N.A. & Najavits, L.M. (2012). Creating trauma-informed correctional care: A balance of goals and environment. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 3, 1-8. DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.17246


(41) Capezza, N.M. & Najavits, L.M. (2012). Rates of trauma-informed counseling
at substance abuse treatment facilities: Reports from over 10,000 programs
Psychiatric Services, 63, 390-394.


(42) Najavits LM. (2012). Expanding the boundaries of PTSD treatment. JAMA; 308(7):714-6.


(43) Ellison ML, Mueller L, Smelson D, Corrigan PW, Torres Stone RA, Bokhour BG, Najavits, LM, Vessella, JM & Drebing, C. (2012). Supporting the education goals of post-9/11 veterans with self-reported PTSD symptoms: a needs assessment. Psychiatr Rehabil J;35(3):209-17.


(44) Carpenter, B., Reid, R., Garos, S., & Najavits, L. M. (2013). Personality Disorder Comorbidity in Treatment-Seeking Men with Hypersexual Disorder. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 20, 79-90.


(45) Kok, T., de Haan, H. A., van der Velden, H. J., van der Meer, M., Najavits, L. M., & de Jong, C. A. (2013). Validation of two screening instruments for PTSD in Dutch substance use disorder inpatients. Addict Behav, 38(3), 1726-1731.


(46) Najavits L.M. (2013). Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress and Alcohol Dependence. JAMA. 310(22):2457-2458. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282141.


(47) Najavits L.M., Lung J., Froias A., Bailey G.L., Paull N.(2013). A study of multiple behavioral addictions in a substance abuse sample. Subst Use Misuse. 49(4):479-84.

Cognitive-Behavioral and Other Therapies

(1) Weiss RD, Griffin ML, Kolodziej ME, Greenfield SF, Najavits LM, Daley DC, et al. (2007). A randomized trial of integrated group therapy versus group drug counseling for patients with bipolar disorder and substance dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry; 164(1):100-107.

(2) Beck J, Liese BS, Najavits LM (2005). Cognitive therapy. In: Frances RJ, Miller SI, Mack (Eds.), Clinical textbook of addictive disorders (3rd ed.), pages 474-501. New York: Guilford.

(3) Najavits LM, Liese BS, Harned M (2004). Cognitive and behavioral therapies.  In Lowinson JH, Millman RB, Ruiz P & Langrod JG (Eds.), Substance abuse:  A comprehensive textbook (4th ed), pages 723-732.  Baltimore:  Williams and Wilkins. 

(4) Najavits LM (2005).  Substance Abuse.  In Kazantzis N, Deane F, Ronan K, Luciano L (Eds.). Using Homework Assignments in Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, pages 263-282.  New York: Brunner-Routledge.

(5) Weiss RD, Najavits LM, Hennessy G. (2004). Overview of treatment modalities for dual diagnosis patients: Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and twelve-step programs. In: Kranzler HR, Rounsaville BJ, editors. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Comorbid Medical and Psychiatric Disorders. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 103-128.

(6) Najavits, LM (2001).  Early Career Award paper: Helping "difficult" patientsPsychotherapy Research. 11:131-152. 

(7) Najavits LM. (2001). Book review: Combining medication and psychosocial treatments for addictions (by Volpicelli, Pettinati, McLellan, O'Brien). Psychiatric Services; 52:1402-1403.

(8) Weiss RD, Griffin ML, Greenfield SF, Najavits LM, Wyner D, Soto J, et al. (2000). Group therapy for patients with bipolar disorder and substance dependence: Results of a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; 61:361-367.

(9) Najavits LM. (2000). Book review. Empirical studies of the therapeutic hour (by Robert F. Bornstein and Joseph M. Masling). Journal of Psychotherapy Research 10:373-374.

(10) Najavits LM. (2000). Book review. Handbook of experimental psychotherapy (by Greenberg, Watson & Lietaer). Journal of Psychotherapy Research; 10:235-236.

(11) Crits-Christoph, P, Siqueland, L, Blaine, J, Frank, A, Luborsky, L, Onken, LS, Muenz, L, Thase, ME., Weiss, RD., Gastfriend, DR., Woody, G, Barber, JP., Butler, SF., Daley, D, Bishop, S, Najavits, LM., Lis, J, Mercer, D, Griffin, ML., Moras, K, Beck, AT. (1999). Psychosocial treatment for cocaine dependence: the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Archives of General Psychology, 56: 493-502.

(12) Crits-Christoph P, Siqueland L, Blaine J, Frank A, Luborsky L, Onken LS, et al. (1999). Psychosocial treatment for cocaine dependence: the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Archives of General Psychology; 56:493-502.

(13) Najavits LM. (1998). How to write a treatment manual. The Behavior Therapist; 2 1:177-178.

(14) Weiss RD, Greenfield SF, Najavits LM, Soto JA, Wyner D, Tohen M, et al. (1998). Medication compliance among patients with bipolar disorder and substance use disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; 59:172-174.

(15) Weiss RD, Greenfield SF, Najavits LM. (1995). Integrating psychological and pharmacological treatment of dually diagnosed patients. NIDA Research Monograph; 150:110-128.

(16) Hollon SD, Najavits LM (1988). Review of empirical studies on cognitive therapy. In: Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, pages 643-666. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Therapists and Therapy

(1) Najavits LM (1993). How do psychotherapists describe their work? A study of metaphors for the therapy process. Psychotherapy Research, 3, 294-299.

(2) Najavits LM & Strupp HH (1994). Differences in the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapist: A process-outcome study. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice. 31, 114-123.

(3) Najavits LM (1997) Psychotherapists' implicit theories of psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 7:1-16.

(4) Najavits LM, Griffin M,L,Luborsky L, Frank A, Weiss RD, Liese BL,Thompson H,  Nakayama E, Siqueland L, Daley D, Onken LS (1995). Therapists' emotional reactions to substance abusers:  A new questionnaire and initial findingsPsychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, 32: 669-677.  [note: for a copy of the measure, email; click here for scoring of it]

(5) Najavits LM, Crits-Christoph P, Dierberger A (2000) Clinicians' impact on the quality of substance use disorder treatment. Substance Use & Misuse; 35: 2161-2190.  Also, reprinted in: Research on Alcoholism Treatment, volume XVI of the series Recent Developments in Alcoholism (M. Galanter, Ed.), 2003; pages 55-68.  New York: Plenum.

(6) Najavits LM, Weiss RD (1994) Variations in therapist effectiveness in the treatment of patients with substance use disorders: An empirical review. Addiction. 89: 679-688.

(7) Najavits LM, Weiss RD. Nelson, SR Dierberger, A (2000) Psychotherapists' views of treatment manuals. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 31:404-408.

(8) Najavits LM (2000).  Researching therapist emotions and counter-transferenceCognitive and Behavioral Practice. 7:322-328.  

(9) Najavits LM (2003). How to design an effective treatment outcome study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19:317-337.

(10) Najavits LM, Ghinassi F, Van Horn A, Weiss RD, Siqueland L, Frank A, Thase ME, Luborsky L (2004). Therapist satisfaction with four manual-based treatments on a national multisite study: An exploratory study. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41:26-37.


(11) Barry DT, Fulgieri MD, Lavery ME, Chawarski MC, Najavits LM, Schottenfeld RS, Pantalon MV. (2008). Research- and community- based clinicians' attitudes on treatment manuals. American Journal on Addictions; 17:145-148.


(12) Gunderson JG, Najavits LM, Leonhard C, Sullivan CN, Sabo AS. (1997). Ontogeny of the therapeutic alliance in borderline patients. Psychotherapy Research; 7:301-309.

(13) Sabo, AN, Gunderson, JG, Najavits, LM, Chauncey, D, Kisiel, C (1995). Changes in self-destructiveness of borderline patients in psychotherapy:  A prospective follow-up. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease; 183: 370-376.

(14) Najavits LM, Gunderson JG (1995). Better than expected: Improvements in borderline personality disorder in a three-year prospective outcome study. Comprehensive Psychiatry; 36:1-9.


(1) Weiss, R. D., Griffin, M. L., Gallop, R. J., Najavits, L. M., Frank, A., Crits-Christoph, P., Luborsky, L. (2005). The effect of 12-step self-help group attendance and participation on drug use outcomes among cocaine-dependent patients. Drug Alcohol Depend, 77(2), 177-184.

(2) Najavits LM, George B, Grymala, L (2003) Can advertising increase awareness of problem gambling? A state-wide study of impact. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,17:324-327.   

(3) Gastfriend DR, Reif S, Baker SL, Najavits LM. (2003). Assessment. In: Graham A, TK S, FJ M-S, RK R, BB W, editors. Principles of Addiction Medicine. third edition ed. Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction Medicine. p. 373-382.

(4) Najavits, LM (1998). Book review. Psychiatry Over Time: From Care to Cure, From Village Green to Park Avenue (review of A History of Psychiatry by Edward Shorter). Contemporary Psychology; 4:281-282.

(5) Weiss, RD, Griffin, ML, Hufford, C, Muenz, LR, Najavits, L.M, Jansson, SB, Kogan, J, Thompson, HJ (1997). Early prediction of initiation of abstinence from cocaine:  Use of a craving questionnaire. American Journal on Addictions, 6: 224-231.

(5) Najavits, LM (1997). Book Review: Changing Character: Short-Term Anxiety-Regulating Psychotherapy for Restucturing Defenses Affects, and Attachments.  pages 240-241. New York: Basic Books.


(6) Weiss, RD, Griffin, ML, Hufford, C, Muenz, LR, Najavits, LM, Jansson, SB, Kogan, J, Thompson, HJ. (1997). Early prediction of initiation of abstinence from cocaine:  Use of a craving questionnaire. American Journal on Addictions, 6: 224-231.



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